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LBSapSal-vaccinated dogs exhibit increased circulating T-lymphocyte subsets (CD4+ and CD8+) as well as a reduction of parasitism after challenge with Leishmania infantum plus salivary gland of Lutzomyia longipalpis

Aguiar-Soares, Rodrigo Dian de Oliveira, Roatt, Bruno Mendes, Ker, Henrique Gama, Moreira, Nádia das Dores, Mathias, Fernando Augusto Siqueira, Cardoso, Jamille Mirelle de Oliveira, Gontijo, Nelder Figueiredo, Bruna-Romero, Oscar, Teixeira-Carvalho, Andréa, Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis, Corrêa-Oliveira, Rodrigo, Giunchetti, Rodolfo Cordeiro, Reis, Alexandre Barbosa
Parasites & vectors 2014 v.7 no.1 pp. 61
Leishmania infantum, Lutzomyia longipalpis, antigens, dogs, immune response, immunoglobulin G, lymphocytes, nitric oxide, parasite load, parasites, parasitism, promastigotes, protective effect, saliva, salivary glands, vaccination, visceral leishmaniasis
BACKGROUND: The development of a protective vaccine against canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is an alternative approach for interrupting the domestic cycle of Leishmania infantum. Given the importance of sand fly salivary proteins as potent immunogens obligatorily co-deposited during transmission of Leishmania parasites, their inclusion in an anti-Leishmania vaccine has been investigated in the last few decades. In this context, we previously immunized dogs with a vaccine composed of L. braziliensis antigens plus saponin as the adjuvant and sand fly salivary gland extract (LBSapSal vaccine). This vaccine elicited an increase in both anti-saliva and anti-Leishmania IgG isotypes, higher counts of specific circulating CD8⁺ T cells, and high NO production. METHODS: We investigated the immunogenicity and protective effect of LBSapSal vaccination after intradermal challenge with 1 × 10⁷ late-log-phase L. infantum promastigotes in the presence of sand fly saliva of Lutzomyia longipalpis. The dogs were followed for up to 885 days after challenge. RESULTS: The LBSapSal vaccine presents extensive antigenic diversity with persistent humoral and cellular immune responses, indicating resistance against CVL is triggered by high levels of total IgG and its subtypes (IgG1 and IgG2); expansion of circulating CD5⁺, CD4⁺, and CD8⁺ T lymphocytes and is Leishmania-specific; and reduction of splenic parasite load. CONCLUSIONS: These results encourage further study of vaccine strategies addressing Leishmania antigens in combination with proteins present in the saliva of the vector.