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Acute and Sub-Lethal Toxicity of Three POEA Surfactant Formulations to Daphnia magna
- Brausch, John M., Beall, Blake, Smith, Philip N.
- Bulletin of environmental contamination and toxicology 2007 v.78 no.6 pp. 510-514
- Daphnia magna, active ingredients, aquatic organisms, growth retardation, herbicides, leaves, lethal concentration 50, nonionic surfactants, toxicity
- Polyethoxylated tallowamine (POEA) is a non-ionic surfactant used in many herbicide formulations to increase the ability of active ingredients to penetrate leaf cuticles. However, it has also been shown to disrupt respiratory membranes in aquatic organisms. In this study, Daphnia magna was used to examine the lethal and sub-lethal toxicity of three POEA formulations consisting of 5:1, 10:1, and 15:1 average oxide:tallowamine. The formulation consisting of 10:1 was the most acutely toxic with a 48-h LC50 value of 97.0 μg/L and 15:1 was least toxic at 849.4 μg/L. All formulations inhibited growth at concentrations between 100 and 500 μg/L.