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Acute toxicity of patulin in mice and rats
- Hayes, A.W., Phillips, T.D., Williams, W.L., Ciegler, A.
- Toxicology 1979 v.13 no.2 pp. 91
- mice, rats, mycotoxins, patulin, acute toxicity, lethal dose 50, mortality, application methods, animal age, adverse effects, animal growth, histopathology
- Patulin had the following 14-day LD50 values when dissolved in saline (pH 7.2) and given as a single i.p. dose: mice, 7.6 mg/kg and weanling rats, 5.9 mg/kg. Administration by stomach tube increased the single dose LD50 value to 17 and 108-118 mg/kg in mice and weanling rats, respectively. Neonatal rats given a single dose of patulin 24 h after birth gained less weight (dose-response relationship apparent than controls during the interval from dosing to 21 days of age. The 14-day oral LD50 in these neonates was 6.8 mg/kg. Patulin potentiated pentobarbital-induced narcosis in adult mice. Because the lethal effect of patulin also was increased by pretreatment with SKF-525A, we suggest that the parent compound, not a metabolite, is the toxic form of this mycotoxin. Death generally occurred within 48-72 h regardless of the route of patulin administration or animal species involved. Focal hepatic necrosis occurred in 10% of the treated mice. Atelectasis was prominent in 64% of the lungs, and alveolar septal congestion and limited intraalveolar hemorrhage were found in an additional 36% of the treated mice and weanling rats. Although stomachs from nurseling rats exposed by gavage to patulin were massively distended with milk, microscopic examination showed no changes other than the extremely stretched wall.