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Field comparison of circulating antibody assays versus circulating antigen assays for the detection of schistosomiasis japonica in endemic areas of China

Author:
Cai, Yu-Chun, Xu, Jun-Fang, Steinmann, Peter, Chen, Shao-Hong, Chu, Yan-Hong, Tian, Li-Guang, Chen, Mu-Xin, Li, Hao, Lu, Yan, Zhang, Ling-Ling, Zhou, Yang, Chen, Jia-Xu
Source:
Parasites & vectors 2014 v.7 no.1 pp. 138
ISSN:
1756-3305
Subject:
Schistosoma japonicum, blood serum, circulating antigens, cost effectiveness, diagnostic techniques, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, feces, hemagglutination, public health, schistosomiasis, screening, villages, China
Abstract:
BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis remains a serious public health problem in affected countries, and routine, highly sensitive and cost-effective diagnostic methods are lacking. We evaluated two immunodiagnostic techniques for the detection of Schistosoma japonicum infections: circulating antibody and circulating antigen assays. METHODS: A total of 1864 individuals (between 6 and 72 years old) residing in five administrative villages in Hubei province were screened by serum examination with an indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA). The positive individuals (titer ≥20 in IHA) were reconfirmed by stool examination with the Kato-Katz method (three slides from a single stool specimen). Samples of good serum quality and a volume above 0.5 ml were selected for further testing with two immunodiagnostic antibody (DDIA and ELISA) and two antigen (ELISA) assays. RESULTS: The average antibody positive rate in the five villages was 12.7%, while the average parasitological prevalence was 1.50%; 25 of the 28 egg-positive samples were also circulating antigen-positive. Significant differences were observed between the prevalence according to the Kato-Katz method and all three immunodiagnostic antibody assays (P-value <0.0001). Similar differences were observed between the Kato-Katz method and the two immunodiagnostic antigen assays (P-value <0.0001) and between the antigen and antibody assays (P-value <0.0001). CONCLUSION: Both circulating antibody and circulating antigen assays had acceptable performance characteristics. Immunodiagnostic techniques to detect circulating antigens have potential to be deployed for schistosomiasis japonica screening in the endemic areas.
Agid:
253152