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Solidification/Stabilization of Cresol-Contaminated Soil: Mechanical and Leaching Behavior

Mohebbi, Mina, Gitipour, Saeid, Madadian, Edris
Soil & sediment contamination 2013 v.22 no.7 pp. 783-799
bentonite, cement, clay, correlation, cresols, leaching, oils, physical properties, remediation, soil, soil sampling, solidification, Iran
In this research, the effects of a solidification/stabilization (S/S) technique on the remediation of cresol-contaminated soil were investigated. The soil samples were collected from the Tehran Oil Refinery (TOR) in Ray District, Iran. Cresols are hazardous chemicals whose exposure at high dosage results in irreparable damage to animal and human health. S/S process progresses through physicochemical reactions, reducing the leachability of a waste as well as changing its physical properties in order to encapsulate the contaminants and form a solid material. The samples were spiked by certain concentrations of cresols including meta-, ortho-, and para-isomers. The treatment process was conducted using Portland cement as the binder and modified bentonite as a stabilizer. The efficiency of the S/S technique was assessed by the unconfined compressive strength (UCS) test and toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) test. The results of the tests showed that adding 20% and 30% Portland cement in combination with 15% and 30% modified bentonite to contaminated samples increased the 28-day compressive strength of S/S blocks to a range of 2.44 to 3.08 MPa. In fact, increasing the proportion of cement in the mix design resulted in enhanced compressive strength, while modified bentonite inversely affected samples’ strength. Regarding leaching behavior, adding organophilic clay to polluted samples noticeably declined cresol's concentrations in leachate. Overall efficiency of S/S in terms of leaching was about 70%, which was obtained by adding 20% cement and 30% modified clay. A logarithmic relationship between leaching percent and modified clay ratio was also detected with high logarithmic and linear correlation coefficients of 0.96 and 0.9, respectively, hence presenting the efficiency of S/S in stabilizing the cresols in the samples.