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Effects of soy proteins containing trypsin inhibitors in long term feeding studies in rats
- Rackis, J.J., McGee, J.E., Gumbmann, M.R., Booth, A.N.
- Journal 1979 v.56 no.3 pp. 162
- soy flour, defatted foods, soy protein, trypsin inhibitors, rats, pancreatic diseases, hypertrophy, animal disease models
- Pancreatic hypertrophy that occurs in rats fed raw soy flour containing about 1200 mg tripsin inhibitor (TI)/100 g diet was reversed by switching the rats to control diets or to diets containing 30% toasted defatted soy flour. No pancreatic hypertrophy occurs in rats fed commercial, edible grade soy flours, concentrate or isolate from time of weaning to adulthood (ca. 300 days). TI content of the soy diets ranged from 178-420 mg/100 g. Except for pancreas enlargement in rats fed raw soy flour, gross and microscopic examination of pancreata revealed no abnormalities. The gross appearance of heart, kidney, spleen, and liver was normal. Soy flour, protein concentrate, and protein isolate in a formulated corn-soy diet provided optimum growth and maintained body weight only if supplemented with vitamin B-12 in long term feeding studies with rats. In the absence of such supplementation, rats fed soy diets initially grew at a rate equal to or greater than those fed a comparable corn-casein control diet; but, with continued feeding for ca. 300 days, body weight of rats fed the casein control was significantly greater than that of the soy flour-fed rats. Those fed soy isolate ceased to grow; and rats fed soy concentrate lost weight. No significant differences were found in organ weights between groups fed soy products and casein, except for increased kidney, liver, and testes weights relative to body weight with the group fed soy concentrate. Supplementation of the soy diets with vitamin B12 stimulated growth to the greatest extent, calcium pantothenate or riboflavin had an intermediate effect, other vitamins had little or no effect; whereas a complete mineral mix was detrimental. Supplementation of the soy diets with vitamin B12 stimulated growth to the greatest extent, calcium pantothenate or roboflavin had an intermediate effect, other vitamins had little or no effect; whereas a complete mineral mix was detrimental. Supplementation of the control diet was without effect. The dietary protein level in these diets was 20%, with casein or soy protein representing 75% of total protein. When fed continuously to rats from weaning to adulthood, properly processed soy protein products, when balanced with essential nutrients, can provide growth comparable to corn-casein diets.