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Naturally occurring parvoviral infection in Hungarian broiler flocks

Palade, Elena Alina, Kisary, János, Benyeda, Zsófia, Mándoki, Míra, Balka, Gyula, Jakab, Csaba, Végh, Borbála, Demeter, Zoltán, Rusvai, Miklós
Avian pathology 2011 v.40 no.2 pp. 191-197
Astroviridae, Chicken parvovirus, Coronaviridae, Reoviridae, atrophy, broiler chickens, bursa of Fabricius, duodenum, enteritis, epidemiology, flocks, genes, histopathology, immunohistochemistry, intestinal mucosa, jejunum, liver, mortality, nucleotide sequences, pancreas, pathogens, phylogeny, poults, turkeys, viruses
The major enteric disease (ED) complex in broiler chickens is runting–stunting syndrome and in turkey broilers is poult enteritis mortality syndrome. Viruses from numerous families have been identified in the intestinal tracts of poultry with ED, such as Astroviridae, Coronaviridae, Reoviridae, Rotaviridae, and Parvoviridae. The objective of the present study was to directly demonstrate the presence of the scarcely known chicken parvovirus (ChPV) and turkey parvovirus (TuPV) in Hungarian flocks experiencing clinical signs of ED. ChPV and TuPV infection were demonstrated in 15 chicken flocks and two turkey flocks, in intestinal samples collected between 2008 and 2010. The histopathological investigation revealed enteritis in the duodenum and jejunum, and atrophy of the lymphoid organs. Indirect immunohistochemistry (IHC) suggested the intestinal epithelium of chickens and turkeys as a potential replication site of the virus, similarly to other parvoviruses, while in case of the turkey samples IHC positivity was also observed in the bursa of Fabricius, liver and pancreas. However, no direct connection could be established between the presence of the pathogen in the above-mentioned tissues and the histopathological changes observed in the investigated flocks. The phylogenetic analysis performed on the partial nucleic acid sequence of the NS1 gene revealed an evident clustering tendency of the ChPV and TuPV strains, but also highlighted the potential reciprocal role of these two species in the epidemiology of these viruses. The role of the ChPV and TuPV in the ED is far from understood, but the results of the present study emphasize the fact that in certain, still not fully elucidated conditions, ChPV and TuPV may participate in the emergence of ED in chicken flocks, as suggested by previous experimental infections.