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Antifouling and antipredatory activity of natural products of the seaweeds Dictyota dichotoma and Chaetomorpha linoides

Annappan Murugan, Maraikayar Shynisha Begum, Maniramakrishnan Santhana Ramasamy, Paulraj Raja
Natural product research 2012 v.26 no.10 pp. 975-978
Chaetomorpha, Dictyota, Monodactylus, acetone, active ingredients, bacteria, bioassays, biofilm, coasts, epiphytes, fish, lethal concentration 50, macroalgae, metabolites, mussels, seawater, toxicity, India
The seaweeds Dictyota dichotoma and Chaetomorpha linoides from the southeast coast of India were screened for anti-microfouling activity against biofilm bacteria, anti-macrofouling activity against brown mussels and feeding deterrence activity against the sea angel Monodactylus kottelati. The surface associated epiphytic bacteria were also isolated from seaweeds and screened for activity against biofilm bacteria. The acetone extracts showed a wide spectrum activity against biofilm bacteria and the algal metabolite was surface concentrated and non-polar in nature. The seaweeds also inhibited byssus production and attachment in brown mussels, and deterred feeding in the sea angel. The lower epiphytic bacterial number on the seaweed's surface compared to the surrounding seawater medium indicated selective inhibition or surface mediation. The epiphytic bacteria, which showed activity against biofilm bacteria, might also possibly play a role in seaweed defence strategies. The 50% deterrence of feeding activity at lower concentrations was not proportionate to the 100% inhibition concentration, which could be attributed to the adaptability of the fishes, an indication that the active substances are inhibitory in nature. This was further substantiated with the 100% recovery of mussels in a toxicity assay and the lower EC₅₀ values than LC₅₀ values in the mussel bioassay. The study indicates that the metabolites of both seaweeds have ecological significance and could possibly play a multifunctional role.