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Ralstonia solanacearum Race 3, Biovar 2, the Causal Agent of Brown Rot of Potato, Identified in Geraniums in Pennsylvania, Delaware, and Connecticut
- Kim, S.H., Olson, T.N., Schaad, N.W., Moorman, G.W.
- Plant disease 2003 v.87 no.4 pp. 450
- DNA, Pelargonium, Ralstonia solanacearum, bacterial wilt, bioterrorism, climate, crop losses, cutting, eggplants, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, galactitol, glucose, greenhouses, growth chambers, growth retardation, lactose, maltose, mannitol, pathogenicity, plant pathology, potatoes, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, relative humidity, sampling, sorbitol, strains, testing, tomatoes, trehalose, vascular tissues, wilting, yeasts, Connecticut, Delaware, Europe, Guatemala, Indiana, Pennsylvania, South Dakota, Wisconsin
- The Plant Disease Diagnostic Laboratory of the Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture received diseased geranium (Pelargonium × hortorum) samples from several Pennsylvania (PA) greenhouses in 1999 and 2000 and from one Delaware (DE) greenhouse in 1999. Originating from Guatemala, plants exhibited yellowing, wilting, stunting, and bacterial oozing from the vascular tissues. Isolations on yeast dextrose-CaCO3 (YDC) and triphenyl-tetrazolium-chloride (TTC) agars resulted in off-white mucoid colonies and white, fluidal colonies with pink centers, respectively. Such colonies are typical of Ralstonia solanacearum (1). The disease was similar to a bacterial wilt of geranium caused by an unidentified biovar of R. solanacearum (3). Preliminary tests using Biolog MicroLog 3 (Hayward, Ca; 4.01A) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (Agdia Inc., Elkhart, IN; BRA 33900/0500) identified the organism as R. solanacearum. For pathogenicity tests, a 10-μl droplet of water suspension containing 1 × 10(6) CFU of each of five geranium strains (PDA 22056-99, 81849-99, 81862-99, 51032-00, and 64054-00) per milliliter was placed on a stem wound made by cutting off the terminal growth of each of 4 6-leaf stage plants of geranium ‘Orbit Scarlet’, tomato ‘Rutgers’, potato ‘Russet Norkotah’, and eggplant ‘Black Beauty’ in a growth chamber at 28°C, 86% relative humidity, and 12 h light/dark cycle. Water was included as a control. The five strains caused severe yellowing and wilting within 10 days. Colonies typical of R. solanacearum were reisolated from symptomatic tissue on YDC and TTC. To determine the specific biovar, 20 pathogenic geranium strains from PA and DE plus a strain of R. solanacearum originally isolated from a geranium plant of Guatemalan origin received from Connecticut in 1995 were grown up to 28 days on Ayers mineral medium supplemented with a 1% final concentration of D-cellobiose, dextrose, meso-inositol, lactose, maltose, D-ribose, trehalose, mannitol, sorbitol, or dulcitol (1). Acid was produced by 21 test strains from the first five carbohydrates only. Such carbohydrate utilization is typical of bv 2 (1). Bv 2 identification was confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction using bv 2-specific primers and probes (N. Schaad, unpublished) designed from a bv 2-specific DNA fragment (2). All tested strains were positive using ELISA. In contrast, strains of bv 2 from geraniums in Wisconsin and South Dakota were reported to be negative using ELISA (4). From our results, it appears that bv 2 was introduced into the United States on geraniums from Guatemala in 1995 and 1999. This cool climate bv 2, a regulated agent by the Agricultural Bioterrorism Protection Act of 2002, has caused extensive crop loss in potatoes in Europe, but has not been found in potatoes in the United States.