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Sorption Interactions between Imazaquin and a Humic Acid Extracted from a Typical Brazilian Oxisol

Ferreira, Julieta A., Martin-Neto, Ladislau, Vaz, Carlos M. P., Regitano, Jussara B.
Journal of environmental quality 2002 v.31 no.5 pp. 1665-1670
Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Oxisols, cation exchange, electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, electrostatic interactions, humic acids, hydrogen bonding, hydrophobic bonding, hydrophobicity, imazaquin, leaching, pH, polarography, quinoline, soil amendments, soil solution, sorption
Soil sorption of most hydrophobic organic compounds (e.g., nonpolar pesticides) is directly related to soil organic matter (SOM) content. Humic substances are the major SOM components, containing carboxylic, phenolic, amine, quinone, and other functional groups, and specific structural configurations. In this paper, sorption interactions between imazaquin (2-[4,5-dydro-4-methyl-4-(1-methylethyl)-5-oxo-1-imidazol-2-yl]-3-quinoline-carboxylic acid) herbicide (IM) and a humic acid (HA) extracted from a typical Brazilian Oxisol were studied with electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic techniques. A polarographic technique was used to quantify sorption. The IM amount sorbed on the HA was much higher than that on the whole soil within the pH range studied, emphasizing the prominent role played by SOM on IM sorption. Moreover, IM sorption increased as the soil-solution pH decreased. This enhancement in sorption was attributed to the hydrophobic affinity of the herbicide by the HA and to the electrostatic interaction between the protonated quinoline group of IM and the negative sites of the HA. Hydrophobic regions in the HA's interior at low pH (<5.0) were recently demonstrated by an EPR detectable spin-label molecule. The FTIR and EPR spectroscopy and polarography data indicated weak interaction between IM and the soil and its HA, involving hydrogen bonding, proton transfer, and cation exchange (at low pH), and mainly hydrophobic interactions. However, no strong reaction mechanism, such as charge transfer, was involved. In addition, this research suggested that soil amendment with organic material might increase magnitude of IM sorption, consequently avoiding leaching and carryover problems usually found for mobile and persistent herbicides such as imazaquin.