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Deliquescence Behavior and Chemical Stability of Vitamin C Forms (Ascorbic Acid, Sodium Ascorbate, and Calcium Ascorbate) and Blends

Hiatt, Ashley N., Ferruzzi, Mario G., Taylor, Lynne S., Mauer, Lisa J.
International journal of food properties 2011 v.14 no.6 pp. 1330-1348
ascorbic acid, calcium, dehydroascorbic acid, foods, relative humidity, shelf life, sodium, stored products
The stability and type of vitamin C added to foods is important for enhancing product quality, label claims, and shelf-life. To improve understanding of stability, the effects of deliquescence, storage relative humidity (RH) formulation, and addition of ascorbyl palmitate and dehydroascorbic acid on degradation of vitamin C at 25°C were studied. Individual vitamin C forms (ascorbic acid, sodium, and calcium ascorbate) and mixtures were stored below, near, and above their deliquescence RH for up to 12 weeks. Vitamin C stability was significantly affected by RH and vitamin form (p < 0.0001). Formulation affected deliquescence and chemical stability: mixtures were significantly less stable above RH₀ₘᵢₓ than below (p < 0.0001). Ascorbyl palmitate-enhanced degradation rates of more soluble vitamin C forms, and the presence of dehydroascorbic acid reduced vitamin blend stability. It is important that vitamin C products be stored below the deliquescence RH to avoid enhanced vitamin losses.