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The Chemokine CCL2 Is Required for Control of Murine Gastric Salmonella enterica Infection

DePaolo, R. William, Lathan, Rashida, Rollins, Barrett J., Karpus, William J.
Infection and immunity 2005 v.73 no.10 pp. 6514-6522
Salmonella enterica, bacteria, blood serum, chemokines, fever, gastroenteritis, immune response, interleukin-6, liver, macrophages, mice, models, mortality, pathogens, serotypes, spleen, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, typhoid fever
Salmonella enterica is a gram-negative intracellular pathogen that can cause a variety of diseases ranging from gastroenteritis to typhoid fever. The Typhimurium serotype causes gastroenteritis in humans; however, infection of mice results in an enteric fever that resembles human typhoid fever and has been used as a model for typhoid fever. The present study examined the role of the chemokine CCL2 in the control of Salmonella infection. Upon infection with salmonellae, mucosal expression of CCL2 is rapidly up-regulated, followed by systemic expression in the spleen. CCL2[superscript -/-] mice became moribund earlier and had a higher rate of mortality compared to wild-type C57BL/6 mice. Moreover, CCL2[superscript -/-] mice had significantly higher levels of bacteria in the liver compared to wild-type controls. Mucosal and serum interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor alpha levels were elevated in CCL2[superscript -/-] mice compared to wild-type mice. In vitro analysis demonstrated that CCL2[superscript -/-] macrophages infected with salmonellae resulted in dysregulated cytokine production compared to macrophages derived from wild-type mice. These data are the first to directly demonstrate CCL2 as a critical factor for immune responses and survival following S. enterica infection.