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Olea europaea volatiles attractive and repellent to the olive fruit fly (Dacus oleae, Gmelin)

Scarpati, M.L., Lo Scalzo, R., Vita, G.
Journal of chemical ecology 1993 v.19 no.4 pp. 881-891
Bactrocera oleae, allelochemicals, Olea europaea, volatile compounds, insect attractants, insect repellents, oviposition, insect control, chemical constituents of plants
Comparative study of the headspace (HS) composition from olive leaves, olives of varying degrees of ripeness, and crushed olives revealed significant quantitative and qualitative differences. Three different methods were employed to test the effect of the substances identified on the behavior of Dacus oleae gravid females. Attractive/repellent features were tested by presenting the insects with olfactory choices of a water solution of the test chemicals examined, water (blank), and a highly attractive (control) solution of olive maceration water (MW). Toluene and ethylbenzene, present in leaf and half-ripe olive HIS proved attractive, while (E)-2-hexenal emitted by the crushed olives was found to be decidedly repellent. An oviposition stimulation/deterrence test was carried out on olives placed in proximity to test chemicals under examination in water solution, with olives from the same crop serving as control. In the oviposition test alpha-pinene, mostly emitted by the leaves and half-ripe olives, emerged clearly as an activant, p-xylene, myrcenone, ethylbenzene, n-octane and o-xylene as weak activants. (E)-2-hexenal and hexanal, both emitted by the crushed olives, displayed an oviposition deterrent effect. The highly repellent property of (E)-2-hexenal was again confirmed in this test.