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Lipid Profile, Glucose Homeostasis, Blood Pressure, and Obesity-Anthropometric Markers in Macrosomic Offspring of Nondiabetic Mothers

Evagelidou, Eleni N., Kiortsis, Dimitrios N., Bairaktari, Eleni T., Giapros, Vasileios I., Cholevas, Vasileios K., Tzallas, Christos S., Andronikou, Styliani K.
Diabetes care 2006 v.29 no.6 pp. 1197-1201
blood pressure, body mass index, body weight, childhood, children, fasting, gestational age, glucose, glucose tolerance, head circumference, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, homeostasis, insulin, insulin resistance, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, mothers, pregnancy, skinfold thickness, triacylglycerols, waist circumference
OBJECTIVE:--The study was to determine whether being the macrosomic offspring of a mother without detected glucose intolerance during pregnancy has an impact on lipid profile, glucose homeostasis, and blood pressure during childhood. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS--Plasma total, HDL, and LDL cholesterol; triglycerides; apolipoprotein (Apo) A-1, -B, and -E; lipoprotein (a); fasting glucose and insulin; homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index; blood pressure; BMI; and detailed anthropometry were evaluated in 85 children aged 3-10 years old, born appropriate for gestational age (AGA; n = 48) and large for gestational age (LGA; n = 37) of healthy mothers. RESULTS:--At the time of the assessment, body weight, height, skinfold thickness, BMI, waist circumference, and blood pressure did not differ between the LGA and AGA groups with the exception of head circumference (P < 0.01). There were no significant differences in plasma total or LDL cholesterol; triglycerides; Apo A-1, -B, or -E; lipoprotein (a); Apo B-to-Apo A-1 ratio; or glucose levels between the groups. The LGA group had significantly higher HDL cholesterol levels (P < 0.01), fasting insulin levels (P < 0.01), and HOMA-IR index (P < 0.01) but lower values of the glucose-to-insulin ratio (P < 0.01) as compared with the AGA group. CONCLUSIONS:--Children born LGA of mothers without confirmed impaired glucose tolerance during pregnancy show higher insulin concentrations than AGAs.