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Effects of leavening acids and dough temperature in wheat flour tortillas

Cepeda, M., Waniska, R.D., Rooney, L.W., Bejosano, F.P.
Cereal chemistry 2000 v.77 no.4 pp. 489-494
aluminum phosphate, aluminum sulfate, carbon dioxide, dough, fumaric acid, mixing, monocalcium phosphate, opacity, pH, sodium, sodium bicarbonate, storage quality, temperature, tortillas, wheat flour
Functionality of four leavening acids (sodium aluminum phosphate (SALP), sodium aluminum sulfate (SAS), monocalcium phosphate (MCP) and sodium acid pyrophosphate [SAPP-28]) was evaluated during processing of wheat flour tortillas. Formulas were optimized to yield opaque, large-diameter tortillas with pH 5.9-6.1. Each leavening acid and sodium bicarbonate was first evaluated at 38 degrees C and then evaluated in combination with fumaric acid at 34 and 38 degrees C. Ionic and pH interactions of leavening salts adversely affected dough properties and resting time. Opacity and pH of tortillas prepared with MCP was lower than for other treatments. Higher dough temperature required more leavening acid and base to compensate for some of the loss of CO2 incurred during dough mixing and resting at 38 degrees C. The addition of fumaric acid decreased the amount of leavening acid, the dough-resting time and tortilla pH, and improved storage stability. Combinations of MCP, SALP (or SAS), and fumaric acid produced dough and tortillas with good qualities. Tortillas prepared using SALP (or SAS) and fumaric acid tended to be of better quality.