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Effect of starter culture, spice mix and storage time and temperature on biogenic amine content of dry fermented sausages

Komprda, T., Smela, D., Pechova, P., Kalhotka, L., Stencl, J., Klejdus, B.
Meat science 2004 v.67 no.4 pp. 607-616
cured meats, dried meat, fermented foods, sausages, ground pork, hot peppers, cultured product starters, Pediococcus pentosaceus, Staphylococcus carnosus, Staphylococcus xylosus, Lactobacillus farciminis, lactic acid bacteria, fermentation, meat aging, storage temperature, ambient temperature, storage time, food safety, water activity, pH, biogenic amines, polyamines, quantitative analysis, plate count, aerobes, food contamination, food microbiology
Two types of dry fermented sausage differing in spicing mixture and the diameter (low content of red pepper + diameter 80 mm, H-sausage; high content of red pepper + diameter 55 mm, P-sausage, respectively) were produced in parallel with two different starter cultures (Pediococcus pentosaceus + Staphylococcus carnosus, B-samples and S. carnosus + Staphylococcus xylosus + Lactobacillus farciminis, F-samples, respectively). The sausages were ripened 21 days and subsequently stored 91 days at the room temperature. Concentration of both most abundant amines, putrescine and tyramine (y; mg/kg DM) increased significantly (P<0.01) in HB-sausage during ripening (x; days): y=2.5+18.13x -0.3144x2 (R2=0.99) and y=0.7+8.17x -0.1130x2 (R2=0.99), and also during storage: y=127.3+5.123x (R2=0.79) and y=26.0+3.211x (R2=0.74), respectively. At the end of ripening, putrescine (247 mg/kg DM) and tyramine (123 mg/kg DM) content in the HB-sausage was higher (P<0.05) than in the PB-sausage (12 and 9 mg/kg DM, respectively), concentration of either of these amines was negligible (1 mg/kg DM) in either type of F-inoculated sausage. Both starter culture and sausage type influenced significantly (P<0.001) both putrescine and tyramine content in the sausage; starter accounted for 57% and 55% of total variability in putrescine and tyramine content, respectively. Due to the significant (P<0.05) increase of total aerobic counts in the HB-sausage between the end of ripening and the 7th day of storage, followed by the significant (P<0.01) increase of the sum of total biogenic amines between the end of ripening (425 mg/kg DM) and the end of storage (1029 mg/kg DM), the storage of the dry fermented sausages at the room temperature should not be recommended.