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The antioxidative activity of plant extracts in cooked pork patties as evaluated by descriptive sensory profiling and chemical analysis

Nissen, L.R., Byrne, D.V., Bertelsen, G., Skibsted, L.H.
Meat science 2004 v.68 no.3 pp. 485-495
rosemary, green tea, coffee (beverage), grapes, plant extracts, antioxidant activity, pork, hamburgers, natural additives, food storage, cold storage, atmosphere, storage time, meat quality, sensory evaluation, odors, flavor, taste, chemical analysis, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, alpha-tocopherol, fatty acid composition, rancidity, lipid peroxidation
Antioxidative efficiency of extracts of rosemary, green tea, coffee and grape skin in precooked pork patties was investigated during storage under retail conditions (10 days, 4 °C, atmospheric air), using descriptive sensory profiling following reheating and quantitative measurements of hexanal, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and vitamin E as indicators of lipid oxidation. The initial oxidative status of pork patties (evaluated by ANOVA) showed a significant lower level of secondary oxidation products and higher levels of vitamin E in patties with extracts incorporated, indicating that the extracts retarded lipid oxidation during processing of the meat. Data analysis for the storage study was based on qualitative overview of sensory/chemical variation by principal component analysis (PCA) and quantitative ANOVA-PLSR for determination of the relationship between design variables (days of chill-storage, extract treatment) versus sensory-chemical variables and PLSR for elucidating the predictive ability of the chemical methods for sensory terms. Lipid oxidation was seen to involve a decrease in perception of meat flavour/odour and a concomitant increase in the off-flavour/odours linseed, rancid. TBARS, hexanal and vitamin E were all significant predictive indices (P<0.05) for the majority of the sensory terms, while vitamin E through negative correlation with TBARS and hexanal displayed its antioxidative effect and thus, its ability to preserve sensory fresh meat flavour/odour. The effect of the various extracts incorporated in the product was clearly related to the degree of lipid oxidation and an overall ranking of the antioxidative efficiency of extracts in declining order became apparent: Rosemary > Grape skin > Tea > Coffee > Reference. Furthermore, the relation between extracts and vitamin E indicated that the extracts, to some extent, interacted with the vitamin and prevented it from degrading. In conclusion, the rosemary extract displayed potential for maintaining sensory eating quality in processed pork products.