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Responses of Trapa natans L. floating laminae to high concentrations of manganese

Baldisserotto, C., Ferroni, L., Anfuso, E., Pagnoni, A., Fasulo, M. P., Pancaldi, S.
Protoplasma 2007 v.231 no.1-2 pp. 65-82
Trapa natans, X-radiation, aquatic plants, electron microscopy, fruits, germination, manganese, monitoring, phenolic compounds, secretion, sediments, trichomes, vacuoles
The present study focuses on the responses of floating laminae of the Mn-tolerant hydrophyte Trapa natans L. to 1 mM Mn and their ability to accumulate the metal. Studies were carried out first on young floating laminae belonging to the second verticil of 30-day-old plants which originated from fruits that had been maintained in a 1 mM Mn-treated environment and again on the young floating laminae after 10 days of further treatment with 1 mM Mn. Mn storing was observed from the first days after germination, but only 10-day-treated laminae showed the capability to hyperaccumulate the element inside specialised cells (>20000 μg/g [dry weight]). Electron microscopy and the Folin-Ciocalteu reaction for phenolics revealed deposits of chelated material inside vacuoles of the first palisade layer and of idioblasts in the spongy tissue. X-ray microanalysis indicated that the deposits were Mn chelated with phenolic compounds. Numerous trichomes were observed at the lower epidermis of 10-day-treated laminae. They were rich in phenolics and characterised by Mn concretions at their base. As they are associated with a high concentration of the metal in culture water and sediments, trichomes may constitute a morphological differentiation for the secretion of Mn-chelating molecules into the culture water, as a probable “avoidance” mechanism. Finally, monitoring of the photosynthetic apparatus showed that photosynthetic function was not impaired, though differences in development occurred.