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Use of a novel nonantibiotic triple marker gene cassette to monitor high survival of Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25 on winter wheat in the field
- Jäderlund, Lotta, Hellman, Maria, Sundh, Ingvar, Bailey, Mark J., Jansson, Janet K.
- FEMS microbiology ecology 2008 v.63 no.2 pp. 156-168
- Monographella nivalis, Pseudomonas fluorescens, climatic factors, field experimentation, genetic markers, green fluorescent protein, luciferase, roots, seeds, shoots, soil, winter, winter wheat, United Kingdom
- Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25 was tagged with a triple marker gene cassette containing gfp, encoding green fluorescent protein; luxAB, encoding luciferase; and telABkilA, encoding tellurite resistance, and the tagged strain was monitored in the first Swedish field release of a genetically modified microorganism (GMM). The cells were inoculated onto winter wheat seeds and the GMM cells (SBW25∷tgl) were monitored in the field from September 2005 to May 2006 using plating, luminometry and microscopic analyses. Cell numbers were high on all sampling occasions and metabolically active cells were detected on all plant parts. Field results were similar to those obtained in a parallel phytotron study, although the amount of SBW25∷tgl detected on shoots was significantly higher in the phytotron than in the field. After winter, cell counts were 100-fold higher on the roots and root-associated soil compared with prewinter measurements, although the cells had a lower relative metabolic activity. The wheat seeds were naturally infested with Microdochium nivale, but no treatment resulted in reduction of disease symptoms. No SWB25∷tgl cells were ever found in bulk soil or uninoculated plants. The Swedish field trial results complement and contrast with prior field studies performed with the same parent organism in the United Kingdom under different soil, plant and climatic conditions.