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Immunogenic and Plasminogen-Binding Surface-Associated α-Enolase of Trichomonas vaginalis

Mundodi, V., Kucknoor, A.S., Alderete, J.F.
Infection and immunity 2008 v.76 no.2 pp. 523-531
Escherichia coli, Trichomonas vaginalis, amino acid sequences, cell adhesion, complementary DNA, epithelial cells, fluorescent antibody technique, glutathione transferase, glycolysis, humans, monoclonal antibodies, parasites, pathogens, patients, phosphopyruvate hydratase, plasmin, plasminogen, sequence alignment, t-plasminogen activator, thrombin, trichomoniasis
Trichomonas vaginalis is a protist that causes the most common human sexually transmitted infection. A T. vaginalis cDNA expression library was screened with pooled sera from patients with trichomoniasis. A highly reactive cDNA clone of 1,428 bp encoded a trichomonad protein of 472 amino acids with sequence identity to α-enolase (tv-eno1). The sequence alignment confirmed the highly conserved nature of the enzyme with 65% to 84% identity among organisms. The expression of tv-eno1 was up-regulated by contact of parasites with vaginal epithelial cells, and this is the first report demonstrating up-regulation by cytoadherence of a plasminogen-binding α-enolase in T. vaginalis. Immunofluorescence with monoclonal antibody of nonpermeabilized trichomonads showed tv-ENO1 on the surface. The recombinant tv-ENO1 was expressed in Escherichia coli as a glutathione S-transferase (GST)::tv-ENO1 fusion protein, which was cleaved using thrombin to obtain affinity-purified recombinant tv-ENO1 protein (tv-rENO1) detectable in immunoblots by sera of patients. Immobilized tv-rENO1 bound human plasminogen in a dose-dependent manner, and plasminogen binding by tv-rENO1 was confirmed in a ligand blot assay. The plasminogen-specific inhibitor ε-aminocaproic acid blocked the tv-rENO1-plasminogen association, indicating that lysines play a role in binding to tv-rENO1. Further, both parasites and tv-rENO1 activate plasminogen to plasmin that is mediated by tissue plasminogen activator. These data indicate that as with other bacterial pathogens, tv-ENO1 is an anchorless, surface-associated glycolytic enzyme of T. vaginalis.