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Calorimetric and stoichiometric analysis of growth of Kluyveromices fragilis in continuous culture: nitrogen limitation imposed upon carbon-limited growth
- Cooney, M.J., Marison, I.W., Gulik, W.M. van., Stockar, U. von.
- Applied microbiology and biotechnology 1996 v.44 no.5 pp. 643-653
- Kluyveromyces marxianus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, biomass, calorimetry, carbon, carbon nitrogen ratio, cell respiration, dissolved oxygen, fermentation, glucose, heat production, nitrogen, physiological response, yeasts
- The calorimetric response of the yeast Kluyveromyces fragilis was investigated for growth in continuous culture where nitrogen limitation was imposed on a carbon-limited culture. Calorimetric measurements were combined with off gas analysis, measurements of biomass, substrate and product concentrations, elemental biomass composition, and heat production to study the physiological response of K. fragilis. Regions where both carbon and nitrogen limited growth, were found over a broad range of dilution rates and feed carbon-to-nitrogen ratios. The principle mechanism by which K. fragilis accommodated regions of dual carbon and nitrogen limitation was by partial decoupling of the anabolic and catabolic pathways. When the culture was only nitrogen-limited, increased decoupling of the two pathways was observed. The principal effect of the decoupling was an increased catabolic consumption of glucose, generating an increased heat yield. The preferred way to process the excess glucose was through respiration but the cells were also capable of fermenting a small percentage of the excess glucose in specific cases where the dissolved oxygen partial pressure approached zero. In addition, these results were qualitatively compared to similar studies on Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The two yeasts were similar in their ability to accommodate dual limitation by uncoupling anabolic biomass formation from substrate consumption. The two yeasts were dissimilar in how the catabolic substrate was processed. For S. cerevisiae the presence of a bottleneck in the respiration pathway dictated that the majority of the catabolic glucose consumption was by fermentation. For K. fragilis, the lack of a bottleneck in the respiration pathway dictated that the majority of catabolic glucose substrate consumption was by respiration.