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Population genetic structure and colonization sequence of Drosophila subobscura in the Canaries and Madeira Atlantic Islands as inferred by autosomal, sex-linked and mtDNA traits

Pinto, F.M., Brehm, A., Hernandez, M., Larruga, J.M., Gonzalez, A.M., Carbrera, V.M.
Journal of heredity 1997 v.88 no.2 pp. 108-114
Drosophila subobscura, allozymes, founder effect, haplotypes, islands, loci, mitochondrial DNA, mitochondrial genes, models, population structure, Canary Islands
The genetic structure in Atlantic islands and continental populations of Drosophila subobscura has been studied using autosomal and sex-linked allozymes and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotypes. From the data it is deduced that whereas the Canary Islands have long been isolated, the neighboring island of Madeira has been subjected to continuous migration from the mainland. In addition, sex-linked allozymes and mtDNA data show a large divergence between the geologically younger western islands of the Canarian Archipelago and the older central ones, finding strong founder effects in the former. Divergence rates of sex-linked and mitochondrial genes relative to autosomic loci several times higher than expected under neutrality have been explained by differential migration between sexes. The Canarian Archipelago colonization fits in well with a stepping-stone model of a directional east-west migration that parallels the geological origin of these islands.