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One-Year Comparison of a High-Monounsaturated Fat Diet With a High-Carbohydrate Diet in Type 2 Diabetes

Brehm, Bonnie J., Lattin, Barbara L., Summer, Suzanne S., Boback, Jane A., Gilchrist, Gina M., Jandacek, Ronald J., D'Alessio, David A.
Diabetes care 2009 v.32 no.2 pp. 215-220
body fat, body mass index, diastolic blood pressure, dieting, energy intake, fasting, fatty acids, food records, glucose, glycemic control, high carbohydrate diet, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, insulin, men, noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, overweight, risk factors, waist circumference, weight loss, women
OBJECTIVE:--The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of high-monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) and high-carbohydrate (CHO) diets on body weight and glycemic control in men and women with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS--Overweight/obese participants with type 2 diabetes (n = 124, age = 56.5 ± 0.8 years, BMI = 35.9 ± 0.3 kg/m², and A1C = 7.3 ± 0.1%) were randomly assigned to 1 year of a high-MUFA or high-CHO diet. Anthropometric and metabolic parameters were assessed at baseline and after 4, 8, and 12 months of dieting. RESULTS:--Baseline characteristics were similar between the treatment groups. The overall retention rate for 1 year was 77% (69% for the high-MUFA group and 84% for the high-CHO group; P = 0.06). Based on food records, both groups had similar energy intake but a significant difference in MUFA intake. Both groups had similar weight loss over 1 year (-4.0 ± 0.8 vs. -3.8 ± 0.6 kg) and comparable improvement in body fat, waist circumference, diastolic blood pressure, HDL cholesterol, A1C, and fasting glucose and insulin. There were no differences in these parameters between the groups. A follow-up assessment of a subset of participants (n = 36) was conducted 18 months after completion of the 52-week diet. These participants maintained their weight loss and A1C during the follow-up period. CONCLUSIONS:--In individuals with type 2 diabetes, high-MUFA diets are an alternative to conventional lower-fat, high-CHO diets with comparable beneficial effects on body weight, body composition, cardiovascular risk factors, and glycemic control.