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Comparative Study of the Effects of a 1-Year Dietary Intervention of a Low-Carbohydrate Diet Versus a Low-Fat Diet on Weight and Glycemic Control in Type 2 Diabetes

Davis, Nichola J., Tomuta, Nora, Schechter, Clyde, Isasi, Carmen R., Segal-Isaacson, C.J., Stein, Daniel, Zonszein, Joel, Wylie-Rosett, Judith
Diabetes care 2009 v.32 no.7 pp. 1147-1152
adults, blood pressure, glycemic control, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, low carbohydrate diet, low fat diet, noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, nutritional intervention, overweight, patients, randomized clinical trials, weight loss
OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of a 1-year intervention with a low-carbohydrate and a low-fat diet on weight loss and glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This study is a randomized clinical trial of 105 overweight adults with type 2 diabetes. Primary outcomes were weight and A1C. Secondary outcomes included blood pressure and lipids. Outcome measures were obtained at 3, 6, and 12 months. RESULTS: The greatest reduction in weight and A1C occurred within the first 3 months. Weight loss occurred faster in the low-carbohydrate group than in the low-fat group (P = 0.005), but at 1 year a similar 3.4% weight reduction was seen in both dietary groups. There was no significant change in A1C in either group at 1 year. There was no change in blood pressure, but a greater increase in HDL was observed in the low-carbohydrate group (P = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with type 2 diabetes, after 1 year a low-carbohydrate diet had effects on weight and A1C similar to those seen with a low-fat diet. There was no significant effect on blood pressure, but the low-carbohydrate diet produced a greater increase in HDL cholesterol.