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Survey of 1975 wheat and soybeans for aflatoxin, zearalenone, and ochratoxin
- Shotwell, O.L., Goulden, M.L., Bennett, G.A., Plattner, R.D., Hesseltine, C.W.
- Journal of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists 1977 v.60 no.4 pp. 778
- soft red winter wheat, soybeans, food contamination, aflatoxins, zearalenone, ochratoxins, surveys, geographical variation, crop damage, plant pathogenic fungi, Gibberella zeae, United States
- Wheat samples (102 lots) were collected from Virginia, North Carolina, southeastern Missouri, southern Illinois, and Kentucky. Soybean samples (180 lots) were collected from Virginia, Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, Nebraska, Alabama, Arkansas, and Texas. Samples of both commodities were analyzed for zearalenone, aflatoxin, and ochratoxin by the Eppley method. None of the 3 mycotoxins was detected in soybeans. Aflatoxins and ochratoxin A were not detected in wheat, but zearalenone was detected in 19 of 42 samples collected in Virginia. Half of the Virginia samples were collected because they were mold-damaged. Zearalenone levels ranged from 0.36 to 11.05 ppm; the identity of the zearalenone was confirmed by gas-liquid chromatography and mass spectroscopy. Gibberella zea infection (6-60%) was detected in all of the zearalenone-positive samples; 6-60% of the kernels in the samples tested contained G. zea.