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Bacterial Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors SopE-Like and WxxxE Effectors
- Bulgin, Richard, Raymond, Benoit, Garnett, James A., Frankel, Gad, Crepin, Valerie F., Berger, Cedric N., Arbeloa, Ana
- Infection and immunity 2010 v.78 no.4 pp. 1417-1425
- Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium, Shigella flexneri, Type III secretion system, actin, enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli, enteropathogenic Escherichia coli, guanine, guanosinetriphosphatase, new family, pathogens, pseudopodia, signal transduction
- Subversion of Rho family small GTPases, which control actin dynamics, is a common infection strategy used by bacterial pathogens. In particular, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, Shigella flexneri, enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC), and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) translocate type III secretion system (T3SS) effector proteins to modulate the Rho GTPases RhoA, Cdc42, and Rac1, which trigger formation of stress fibers, filopodia, and lamellipodia/ruffles, respectively. The Salmonella effector SopE is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) that activates Rac1 and Cdc42, which induce "the trigger mechanism of cell entry." Based on a conserved Trp-xxx-Glu motif, the T3SS effector proteins IpgB1 and IpgB2 of Shigella, SifA and SifB of Salmonella, and Map of EPEC and EHEC were grouped together into a WxxxE family; recent studies identified the T3SS EPEC and EHEC effectors EspM and EspT as new family members. Recent structural and functional studies have shown that representatives of the WxxxE effectors share with SopE a 3-D fold and GEF activity. In this minireview, we summarize contemporary findings related to the SopE and WxxxE GEFs in the context of their role in subverting general host cell signaling pathways and infection.