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Effect of Artichoke Leaf Extract on Hepatic and Cardiac Oxidative Stress in Rats Fed on High Cholesterol Diet

Küçükgergin, Canan, Aydın, A. Fatih, Özdemirler-Erata, Gül, Mehmetçik, Güldal, Koçak-Toker, Necla, Uysal, Müjdat
Biological trace element research 2010 v.135 no.1-3 pp. 264-274
lipid peroxidation, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, hypercholesterolemia, heart, oxidative stress, glutathione, atherosclerosis, artichokes, cholic acid, glutathione transferase, malondialdehyde, Cynara cardunculus, blood lipids, blood serum, superoxide dismutase, triacylglycerols, rats, antioxidants, ascorbic acid, leaf extracts, diet, liver, vitamin E, glutathione peroxidase
Hypercholesterolemia and lipid peroxidation play complementary roles in atherosclerosis. Artichoke (Cynara scolymus L., Asteraceae) leaf extract (ALE), rich in antioxidants, has cholesterol-reducing effect. We investigated the effect of ALE on serum and hepatic lipid levels and pro-oxidant-antioxidant balance in the liver and heart of hypercholesterolemic rats. Rats were fed on 4% (w/w) cholesterol and 1% cholic acid (w/w) supplemented diet for 1 month. ALE (1.5 g/kg/day) was given by gavage during the last 2 weeks. High cholesterol (HC) diet caused significant increases in serum and liver cholesterol and triglyceride levels. It increased malondialdehyde (MDA) and diene conjugate (DC) levels in both tissues. Hepatic vitamin E levels and hepatic and cardiac glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities decreased, but superoxide dismutase and glutathione transferase activities, glutathione, and vitamin C levels remained unchanged due to HC diet. Serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels and ratio of cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol decreased in ALE plus HC-treated rats, but liver cholesterol and triglyceride levels remained unchanged. Significant decreases in hepatic and cardiac MDA and DC levels and increases in hepatic vitamin E and GSH-Px activities were observed in ALE-treated hypercholesterolemic rats. Our results indicate that ALE decreases serum lipids and hypercholesterolemia-induced pro-oxidant state in both tissues.