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Fast analysis of doping agents in urine by ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. II: Confirmatory analysis
- Badoud, F., Grata, E., Perrenoud, L., Saugy, M., Rudaz, S., Veuthey, J.-L.
- Journal of chromatography 2010 v.1217 no.25 pp. 4109-4119
- beta-adrenergic antagonists, diuretics, elemental composition, ephedrine, ions, isomers, liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry, narcotics, phenylpropanolamine, pseudoephedrine, rapid methods, screening, solid phase extraction, urine
- For doping control, analyses of samples are generally achieved in two steps: a rapid screening and, in the case of a positive result, a confirmatory analysis. A two-step methodology based on ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography coupled to a quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF-MS) was developed to screen and confirm 103 doping agents from various classes (e.g., β-blockers, stimulants, diuretics, and narcotics). The screening method was presented in a previous article as part I (i.e., Fast analysis of doping agents in urine by ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Part I: screening analysis). For the confirmatory method, basic, neutral and acidic compounds were extracted by a dedicated solid-phase extraction (SPE) in a 96-well plate format and detected by MS in the tandem mode to obtain precursor and characteristic product ions. The mass accuracy and the elemental composition of precursor and product ions were used for compound identification. After validation including matrix effect determination, the method was considered reliable to confirm suspect results without ambiguity according to the positivity criteria established by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). Moreover, an isocratic method was developed to separate ephedrine from its isomer pseudoephedrine and cathine from phenylpropanolamine in a single run, what allowed their direct quantification in urine.