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Antidepressant Use Before and After the Diagnosis of Type 2 Diabetes: A longitudinal modeling study
- Kivimäki, Mika, Tabák, Adam G., Lawlor, Debbie A., Batty, G. David, Singh-Manoux, Archana, Jokela, Markus, Virtanen, Marianna, Salo, Paula, Oksanen, Tuula, Pentti, Jaana, Witte, Daniel R., Vahtera, Jussi
- Diabetes care 2010 v.33 no.7 pp. 1471-1476
- adverse effects, antidepressants, cohort studies, longitudinal studies, men, mental depression, models, noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, odds ratio, public sector, risk, women, Finland
- OBJECTIVE: To examine antidepressant use before and after the diagnosis of diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This study was a longitudinal analysis of diabetic and nondiabetic groups selected from a prospective cohort study of 151,618 men and women in Finland (the Finnish Public Sector Study, 1995-2005). We analyzed the use of antidepressants in those 493 individuals who developed type 2 diabetes and their 2,450 matched nondiabetic control subjects for each year during a period covering 4 years before and 4 years after the diagnosis. For comparison, we undertook a corresponding analysis on 748 individuals who developed cancer and their 3,730 matched control subjects. RESULTS: In multilevel longitudinal models, the odds ratio for antidepressant use in those who developed diabetes was 2.00 (95% CI 1.57-2.55) times greater than that in nondiabetic subjects. The relative difference in antidepressant use between these groups was similar before and after the diabetes diagnosis except for a temporary peak in antidepressant use at the year of the diagnosis (OR 2.66 [95% CI 1.94-3.65]). In incident cancer case subjects, antidepressant use substantially increased after the cancer diagnosis, demonstrating that our analysis was sensitive for detecting long-term changes in antidepressant trajectories when they existed. CONCLUSIONS: Awareness of the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes may temporarily increase the risk of depressive symptoms. Further research is needed to determine whether more prevalent use of antidepressants noted before the diagnosis of diabetes relates to effects of depression, side effects of antidepressant use, or a common causal pathway for depression and diabetes.