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Control of black foot disease in grapevine nurseries
- Halleen, F., Fourie, P.H., Crous, P.W.
- Plant pathology 2007 v.56 no.4 pp. 637-645
- Neonectria, Trichoderma, Vitis, benomyl, dieback, field experimentation, flusilazole, hot water treatment, imazalil, manganese chloride, mycelium, nursery crops, pathogens, planting, prochloraz, roots, rootstocks, soil, soil amendments
- Black foot disease of grapevines is a decline and dieback disease caused by a soilborne pathogen complex including Cylindrocarpon liriodendri, C. macrodidymum, Campylocarpon fasciculare and Campyl. pseudofasciculare. These pathogens cause primary infections of roots and basal ends of grafted cuttings in nursery soils. Thirteen fungicides were screened in vitro for mycelial inhibition of these pathogens. Prochloraz manganese chloride, benomyl, flusilazole and imazalil were the most effective fungicides tested, and were subsequently included in semi-commercial field trials. Basal ends of grafted cuttings were dipped in various chemical and biological treatments prior to planting in open-rooted nurseries. Black foot pathogens were not isolated from grafted cuttings prior to planting. Additional treatments involved soil amendments with Trichoderma formulations and hot water treatment of dormant nursery grapevines. Field trials were evaluated after eight months. Isolations from uprooted plants revealed low levels of black foot pathogens in the roots of untreated control plants, and significantly higher levels in basal ends of rootstocks. The incidence of black foot pathogens, as well as that of Petri disease pathogens, was not significantly and/or consistently reduced by the majority of chemical or biological treatments. However, these pathogens were not isolated from uprooted plants that were subjected to hot water treatment. It is therefore recommended that hot water treatment of dormant nursery plants be included in an integrated strategy for the proactive management of these diseases in grapevine nurseries.