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Suitability of weed species prevailing in Spanish vineyards as hosts for root-knot nematodes

Castillo, P., Rapoport, H. F., Rius, J. E. Palomares, Díaz, R. M. Jiménez
European journal of plant pathology 2008 v.120 no.1 pp. 43-51
Amaranthus retroflexus, Anchusa azurea, Chenopodium album, Erodium, Malva, Meloidogyne incognita, Meloidogyne javanica, Sinapis alba subsp. alba, Solanum nigrum, Vitis vinifera, histopathology, host preferences, host-parasite relationships, inoculum, population density, root galls, root-knot nematodes, roots, soil, tissues, vineyards, weed hosts, Spain
Commercial vineyards in southern Spain were surveyed and sampled during October to December 2004 to determine the extent to which common weeds present were suitable hosts of root-knot nematodes infesting soils of those vineyards. Seven weed species commonly growing in grapevine soils in southern Spain were found infected by either Meloidogyne incognita or M. javanica: Amaranthus retroflexus (redroot pigweed), Anchusa azurea (ox-tongue), Chenopodium album (goosefoot), Erodium moschatum (musk stork's bill), Malva rotundifolia (low mallow), Sinapis alba (white mustard), and Solanum nigrum (black nightshade). The host suitability of the weeds to root-knot nematodes was evaluated on the basis of root galling severity and nematode population densities in soil and roots. Also, the host-parasite relationship in these naturally Meloidogyne-infected weeds was examined. All the weed species in the study were considered suitable hosts for M. incognita and M. javanica because: (a) high Meloidogyne spp. populations occurred in roots and surrounding soil of the weed species; (b) the severity of root galling was high, and (c) well-established permanent feeding sites were observed in the histopathological studies of infected root tissues. In addition, this study presents the first reports of S. alba and A. azurea as hosts for M. incognita, and of E. moschatum as a new host for M. javanica, thus increasing the list of reported weed hosts for Meloidogyne spp. These results indicate that noticeable population densities of M. incognita and M. javanica can be maintained or increased in these weeds, at population levels higher than those previously reported for the same nematodes infecting grapevine roots. The weeds infesting vineyards thus represent an important source of inoculum of Meloidogyne spp., and furthermore may act as reservoirs of these nematodes which can be disseminated within or among vineyards by agricultural operations.