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Utilization of monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons individually and in mixture by bacteria isolated from petroleum-contaminated soil

Płaza, Grażyna A., Wypych, Jacek, Berry, Christopher, Brigmon, Robin L.
World journal of microbiology & biotechnology 2007 v.23 no.4 pp. 533-542
Achromobacter piechaudii, BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene), Ralstonia, bacteria, benzene, biodegradation, bioremediation, biosurfactants, ethylbenzene, fatty acid methyl esters, fatty acids, petroleum, polluted soils, pollution, polymerase chain reaction, toluene, xylene
The fate of benzene, ethylbenzene, toluene, xylenes (BTEX) compounds through biodegradation was investigated using two different bacteria, Ralstonia picketti (BP-20) and Alcaligenes piechaudii (CZOR L-1B). These bacteria were isolated from extremely polluted soils contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons. PCR and Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) were used to identify the isolates. In this study, BTEX biodegradation, applied as a mixture or as individual compounds by the bacteria was evaluated. Both bacteria were shown to degrade each of the BTEX compounds individually and in mixture. However, Alcaligenes piechaudii was a better degrader of BTEXs both in the mixture and individually. Differences between BTEX biodegradation in the mixture and individually were observed, especially in the case of benzene. The degradation of all BTEXs in the mixture was lower than the degradation of individual compounds for both bacteria tested. In the all experiments, toluene and m + p- xylenes were better removed than the other BTEXs. No intermediates of biodegradation were detected. Biosurfactant production was observed by culture techniques. In addition, 3-hydroxy fatty acids, important in biosurfactant production, were observed by FAME analysis. The test results indicate that the bacteria could contribute to bioremediation of aromatic hydrocarbon pollution.