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Removal of 4‐chlorophenol from contaminated water using coconut shell waste pretreated with chemical agents

Kurniawan, Tonni Agustiono, Waihung, Lo, Repo, Eveliina, Sillanpää, Mika ET
Journal of chemical technology and biotechnology 2010 v.85 no.12 pp. 1616-1627
adsorbents, adsorption, agitation, charcoal, coconuts, effluents, hulls, nitric acid, pH, phenols, sodium hydroxide, titanium dioxide, wastewater, wastewater treatment, water pollution
BACKGROUND: At concentrations higher than 1 mg L⁻¹, 4‐chlorophenol (4‐CP) is very toxic to living organisms, and if ingested beyond the permitted concentration it causes health disorders such as cancer and mutation. This laboratory study investigates treatment of contaminated water laden with 4‐CP using coconut shell charcoal (CSC) waste. Batch studies were conducted to study the effects of dose, pH, and equilibrium time on 4‐CP removal. To improve 4‐CP removal, surface modification of the adsorbent with TiO₂, HNO₃, and/or NaOH was undertaken. RESULTS: At an initial 4‐CP concentration of 25 mg L⁻¹ under optimized conditions (dose 13.5 g L⁻¹, pH 2.0; agitation speed 150 rpm and 50 min equilibrium time), the NaOH‐treated CSC demonstrated a greater removal of 4‐CP (71%) than those oxidized with HNO₃ (40%) and/or coated with TiO₂ (52%). The adsorption capacity of the NaOH‐treated CSC (54.65 mg g⁻¹) was higher than those treated with HNO₃ (23.13 mg g⁻¹) or coated with TiO₂ (48.42 mg g⁻¹). CONCLUSION: Although treatment results using the NaOH‐treated CSC alone were promising, the treated effluents were still unable to meet the required limit of less than 1 mg L⁻¹. Therefore, subsequent treatments are still required to complement the removal of 4‐CP from the wastewater.