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Hemocyte differentiation mediates the mosquito late-phase immune response against Plasmodium in Anopheles gambiae
- Smith, Ryan C., Barillas-Mury, Carolina, Jacobs-Lorena, Marcelo
- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2015 v.112 no.26 pp. E3412
- Anopheles gambiae, Plasmodium, blood, hemocytes, immune response, innate immunity, malaria, oocysts, parasites, transcription factors, tumor necrosis factor-alpha
- Significance The innate immune response is a major determinant of malaria parasite success in its mosquito host. Previous experiments have implicated LPS-induced TNFα transcription factor (LITAF)-like 3 (LL3) as an integral component of the mosquito immune response to the malaria parasite. This study reports that LL3 influences oocyst survival and demonstrates its role in mosquito blood cell (hemocyte) differentiation in response to parasite infection. Integrating previous data, we provide evidence that hemocytes are critical modulators of the mosquito late-phase immune response. Our findings provide new insight into how parasites are killed in the mosquito host and define major roles for LL3 and the STAT pathways in Plasmodium oocyst survival.