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Cytogenetic studies on two F1 hybrids of autotetraploid rice varieties showing extremely high level of heterosis

Luan, L., Tu, S. B., Long, W. B., Wang, X., Liu, Y. H., Kong, F. L., He, T., Yan, W. G., Yu, M. Q.
Plant systematics and evolution 2007 v.267 no.1-4 pp. 205-213
chromosome pairing, chromosomes, genetic stability, heterosis, hybrids, metaphase, microspores, parents, pollen, rice, seed set
Mechanisms of two F1 hybrids (D46A x DTP-4 and D46A x Dminghui63) of autotetraploid rice (2n = 4x = 48) showing extremely high pollen fertility 87.40% and 85.97%, respectively, seed set 82.00% and 79.00%, respectively and extremely high level of heterosis were analyzed cytologically. The chromosome pairing of D46A x DTP-4 and D46A x Dminghui63 was normal at metaphase I(MI), and had almost no I or III, with an average of 0.020I +14.36 II 6.44rod+7.91ring) +0.01III + 4.80 IV + 0.01VIII and 0.06 I + 17.67 II (11.01rod + 6.67ring)] + 0.06 III +3.10IV+0.01VI, respectively. The most frequent chromosome configurations were 10II+7IV and 12II+bIV. The bivalent frequency was less frequent in hybrids than that in restoring parents, and the same results were gained from univalents, trivalent and multivalents. However, the quadrivalent frequency was significantly higher in hybrids than that in restoring parents at MI. The other meiotic phases progressed normally, except for low percentages of PMCs with lagging chromosomes at AI and low percentages of PMCs with micronuclei at telophaseI (TI) and telophaseII (TII). PMCs with lagging chromosomes at AI and PMCs with micronuclei at TI and TII showed negative correlation between pollen fertility and seed set. Above 90% of the PMCs could form normal microspores, which resulted in the production of viable pollen grains, abnormal microspores were observed including penta-fission and hexa-fission. Based on these results we suggest that the two F1 hybrids had better behaviors of chromosome pairing and genetic stability than autotetraploid rice and other autotetraploid plants ever studied.