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Effect of soil air capacity on water relations and vegetative growth of 'Thompson Seedless' grafted on different rootstocks: preliminary results

Ferreyra, R., Selles, G., Pinto, M., Morales, M., Seguel, O.
Acta horticulturae 2011 no.889 pp. 145-150
aeration, clay, cultivars, fruit quality, fruit yield, leaves, oxygen, pruning, rootstocks, soil air, stomatal conductance, table grapes, vegetative growth, vines, water potential
Soils with unfavourable natural conditions for root development can affect both yield and fruit quality of table grapes, mainly due to an inadequate soil air/water ratio. The objective of this study was to generate information about the adaptation of own-rooted or grafted ‘Thompson Seedless’ vines grown in soils with different soil air capacity (ACf). The experiment was carried out in pots containing four different soil textural classes (sandy, sandy loam, clay loam and silty loam) that generated different soil air contents (AC). Plants of cultivar ‘Thompson Seedless’ were grafted on five different rootstocks (110 Richter, Harmony, Ramsey, 1616 Couderc and Freedom), and an own-rooted vine was used as a control. The ACf values ranged between 9-26%, and had a direct relation with oxygen diffusion rates (ODR), which ranged between 0.25 to 0.70 µg cm-2 min-1. The leaf stomatal conductance was high in soils with AC 22.63%, but not significantly affected by low soil AC. The midday stem water potential (SWPmd) was not affected by AC, and values ranged between -0.55 and -0.63 MPa. AC values higher than 20% decreased the pruning weight of 110-R, Harmony and Freedom, while Ramsey was the less affected in a wide range of AC. Own-rooted plants were significantly affected by low soil air content. In general, in aeration stress condition soils, rootstocks particularly 110-R and Ramsey promote vegetative growth of ‘Thompson Seedless’ vines, although results need to be confirmed at least one more season.