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Life History, Development, and Rearing of Eucryptorrhynchus brandti (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Quarantine

Herrick, N.J., Salom, S.M., Kok, L.T., McAvoy, T.J.
Annals of the Entomological Society of America 2011 v.104 no.4 pp. 718-725
Ailanthus altissima, Curculionidae, adults, biological control agents, cutting, eggs, females, host specificity, invasive species, laboratory rearing, larvae, males, nontarget organisms, quarantine, univoltine habit, China, United States
Eucryptorrhynchus brandti (Harold) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) was identified in China and studied in quarantine in the United States as a potential biological control agent for the invasive weed, tree of heaven, Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle (Sapindales: Simaroubaceae). Studies on its general biology and development, and the most efficacious rearing method were conducted. E. brandti is univoltine. The metathoracic sternite and first abdominal segment are convex in females and concave or flat in males. Females are larger than males. Female and male sagittal measurements averaged 11.50 ± 0.14 (± SEM) and 10.35 ± 0.09 mm, respectively. Transversal measurements averaged 4.22 ± 0.06 and 3.73 ± 0.05 mm for females and males, respectively. Mean weight of females and males were 0.10 ± 0.003 and 0.07 ± 0.002 g, respectively. Females lived longer than males, averaging 66.3 ± 6.8 d and 46.5 ± 7.3 d, respectively. The egg stage averaged 5.0 ± 0.9 d, and the larval stage had six stadia and developed in 110 ± 15.0 d; the pupal stage was 16 ± 7.0 d at 25°C. A method for rearing E. brandti on cut A. altissima billets under quarantine conditions was developed. The most efficient egg-to-adult rearing method involved caging 12 males and 12 females or 24 males and 24 females for 7 d on 23-92-cm-long billets. Duration up to 3 wk after cutting did not affect adult emergence. This information will facilitate laboratory rearing and conducting host specificity tests to determine agent impact on nontarget species.