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Chromosome banding in three species of Hypsiboas (Hylidae, Hylinae), with special reference to a new case of B-chromosome in anuran frogs and to the reduction of the diploid number of 2n = 24 to 2n = 22 in the genus

Gruber, Simone Lilian, Haddad, Célio Fernando Baptista, Kasahara, Sanae
Genetica 2007 v.130 no.3 pp. 281-291
Hypsiboas, chromosome banding, chromosome number, chromosomes, differential staining, diploidy, evolution, frogs, karyotyping, Brazil
The chromosomes of hylids Hypsiboas albopunctatus, H. raniceps, and H. crepitans from Brazil were analyzed with standard and differential staining techniques. The former species presented 2n = 22 and 2n = 23 karyotypes, the odd diploid number is due to the presence of an extra element interpreted as B chromosome. Although morphologically very similar to the small-sized chromosomes of the A complement, the B was promptly recognized, even under standard staining, on the basis of some characteristics that are usually attributed to this particular class of chromosomes. The two other species have 2n = 24, which is the chromosome number usually found in the species of Hypsiboas karyotyped so far. This means that 2n = 22 is a deviant diploid number, resulted from a structural rearrangement, altering the chromosome number of 2n = 24 to 2n = 22. Based on new chromosome data, some possibilities were evaluated for the origin of B chromosome in Hypsiboas albopunctatus, as well as the karyotypic evolution in the genus, leading to the reduction in the diploid number of 2n = 24 to 2n = 22.