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Grape phylloxera development on potted grapevine treated with ectomycorrhizal fungi

Kocsis, L., Szalanski, W.
Acta horticulturae 2011 no.904 pp. 117-122
Daktulosphaira vitifoliae, Phylloxera, Vitis vinifera, biomass production, biotypes, container-grown plants, developmental stages, ectomycorrhizae, fungi, grapes, greenhouses, hardwood, horticulture, insects, nutrition, reproduction, root systems, rootstocks, shoots, vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizae, vines, woody plants
Grape rootstocks are the only effective solutions to protect European vines against the grape phylloxera (Daktulosphaira vitifoliae Fitch). The mycorrhizas (arbuscular mycorrhiza and ectomycorrhiza fungi) have established symbiosis with most agricultural, horticultural, and hardwood crop species millions of years ago and the benefits of the symbiosis on plants are well known in many aspects. Ectomycorrhizal fungi (hereafter EMF) associates with woody plants, therefore we assessed if EMF could be a natural protector against phylloxera introducing resistance by preventing feeding site establishment or influence the nutrition sources required by the insect for further development. Potted plants were treated with different EMF biotypes, provided by the laboratory MYKOFLOR and control plants were maintained under glasshouse conditions. The mycorrhiza treated and the control plants were inoculated with phylloxera later on. The number of nodosities on the root and the number of different development stages per insect were counted. Reproduction ratio and multiplication ratio were calculated per treatment. Our results showed that the EMF increased the biomass production of the plants compare to the non EMF inoculated plants. Phylloxera was able to establish on all the EMF treated plants. The multiplication ratio was mostly higher on EMF treated plants compared to the control. It can be concluded that EMF will help to develop the shoot and root system of the plants, but it does not control the number of grape phylloxera on the sensitive genotypes of Vitis vinifera L.