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High Prevalence of Turkey Parvovirus in Turkey Flocks from Hungary Experiencing Enteric Disease Syndromes
- Palade, Elena Alina, Demeter, Zoltán, Hornyák, Ákos, Nemes, Csaba, Kisary, János, Rusvai, Miklós
- Avian diseases 2011 v.55 no.3 pp. 468-475
- Avastrovirus 3, Coronavirinae, Galliform aveparvovirus 1, Protoparvovirus, Rotavirus, bird diseases, environmental factors, epidemiology, flocks, genes, mortality, pathogens, phylogeny, restriction fragment length polymorphism, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, turkeys, viruses, Hungary
- Samples collected in 2008 and 2009, from 49 turkey flocks of 6 to 43 days in age and presenting clinical signs of enteric disease and high mortality, were tested by polymerase chain reaction and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction for the presence of viruses currently associated with enteric disease (ED) syndromes: astrovirus, reovirus, rotavirus, coronavirus, adenovirus, and parvovirus. Turkey astroviruses were found in 83.67% of the cases and turkey astrovirus 2 (TAst-2) in 26.53%. The investigations directly demonstrated the high prevalence of turkey parvovirus (TuPV) in 23 flocks (46.9%) experiencing signs of ED, making this pathogen the second most identified after astroviruses. Phylogenetic analysis on a 527 base pair-long region from the NS1 gene revealed two main clusters, a chicken parvovirus (ChPV) and a TuPV group, but also the presence of a divergent branch of tentatively named :"TuPV-like ChPV" strains. The 23 Hungarian TuPV strains were separately positioned in two groups from the American origin sequences in the TuPV cluster. An AvaII-based restriction fragment length polymorphism assay has also been developed for the quick differentiation of TuPV, ChPV, and divergent TuPV-like ChPV strains. As most detected enteric viruses have been directly demonstrated in healthy turkey flocks as well, the epidemiology of this disease complex remains unclear, suggesting that a certain combination of pathogens, environmental factors, or both are necessary for the development of clinical signs.