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Susceptibility of Thompson Seedless Grapevines Raised on Different Rootstocks to Leaf Blackening and Necrosis under Saline Irrigation

Sharma, Jagdev, Upadhyay, Ajay Kumar, Bande, Dnyanesh, Patil, Sarika D.
Journal of plant nutrition 2011 v.34 no.9-11 pp. 1711-1722
Vitis acerifolia, Vitis champini, Vitis cinerea var. helleri, Vitis labrusca, Vitis riparia, Vitis rupestris, Vitis vinifera, biomass, canes, death, irrigation water, necrosis, nutrient content, petioles, phosphorus, potassium, ripening, roots, rootstocks, sodium, toxicity, vines
Saline irrigation water having high sodium (Na+) content leads to the development of black leaf disorder in the vines resulting in reduced productivity and death of permanent vine parts. The response of the vines raised on different rootstocks differs under such conditions. Investigation was carried out to study the susceptibility of grafted and own-rooted Thompson Seedless (Vitis vinifera L.) vines to black leaf disorder. Grapevines grafted on four different rootstocks viz. Dog Ridge (Vitis champini), Salt Creek (Vitis champini), B2-56 (Vitis berlandieri x Vitis rupestris) and 1613C [Vitis longii x (Vitis labrusca x Vitis riparia) x Vitis vinifera] were studied. The variations in nutrient content of various vine parts under saline irrigation in relation to leaf blackening and necrosis symptoms were also studied. Thompson Seedless vines grafted on Dog Ridge, Salt Creek and own rooted vines started developing leaf blackening and necrosis symptoms during the ripening stage. Vines exhibiting these symptoms contained significantly lower potassium (K+) and higher Na+ content in the leaf blades as compared to healthy vines. Vines grafted on Salt Creek showed most severe leaf blackening and necrosis symptoms and had the lowest K+ content in blades and petioles. Amongst the rootstocks, vines raised on B2-56 had the lowest Na+ concentration in leaf blades whereas those on Dog Ridge and Salt Creek accumulated Na+ in leaf blades to a toxic level. Significantly higher K+ content was found in vines raised on B2-56 and 1613C rootstocks in all the vine parts compared to other stock-scion combinations. Vines grafted on B2-56 and 1613C could maintain higher K+: Na+ ratio and tolerated saline irrigation better than other stock-scion combinations. All the rootstocks reduced chloride concentration significantly in the vine parts (petioles, blade and canes) compared to own rooted vines. Vines raised on their own roots and on B2-56 rootstock had significantly higher phosphorus (P) concentration in petiole, blade and canes compared to vines grafted on Dog Ridge and Salt Creek. Total biomass (petiole + blade + cane on dry weight basis) and yield was the highest in B2-56 rootstock and least in 1613C.