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Reliability of high-throughput genotyping of whole genome amplified DNA in SNP genotyping studies
- Berthier-Schaad, Yvette, Kao, Wen Hong Linda, Coresh, Josef, Zhang, Lin, Ingersoll, Roxann G., Stephens, Robert, Smith, Michael W.
- Electrophoresis 2007 v.28 no.16 pp. 2812-2817
- DNA, electrophoresis, genes, genotype, genotyping, loci, single nucleotide polymorphism, statistical analysis, telomeres
- Whole genome amplification (wga) of DNA is being widely implemented in many laboratories to extend the life of samples only available in limited quantities for genetic analysis. We determined the reliability of wgaDNA genotypes in three sets of replicates from the same individuals: (i) 23 pairs of genomic DNA (gDNA), (ii) 43 pairs gDNA versus wgaDNA, and (iii) 29 pairs of independently amplified wgaDNA. Amplification was performed using multiple displacement amplification (MDA). Genotyping was successful for both DNA types for 1268 out of 1534 SNPs from 164 cardiovascular candidate genes assayed in a single Illumina panel. Amplified DNA failed for 77 SNPs (6%) that were genotyped successfully with genomic material. Percent of successful SNP calls, and concordance between pairs and kappa statistics (κ) were determined. A total of 54 110 genotypes from gDNA-wgaDNA pairs were available for concordance analysis. Mean κ for gDNA-wgaDNA pairs was 0.99. Concordance between gDNA-wgaDNA pairs was higher than amongst wgaDNA pairs (mean κ for the 29 independently amplified pairs of wgaDNA was 0.95; interquartile range: 0.93-1.00). A statistical analysis of those SNPs which failed to genotype from amplified DNA only revealed that those loci were more likely to be closer to the telomeres and in locally GC-rich sequences. In summary, the MDA method produces wgaDNA samples that can be genotyped using high-throughput technology with a very high reproducibility to the original DNA but with slightly lower call rates. DNA amplification methodologies provide a useful solution for current and future large-scale genetic analyses especially with limited quantities of samples and DNA.