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Determination of human blood glucose levels using microchip electrophoresis

Maeda, Eiki, Kataoka, Masatoshi, Hino, Mami, Kajimoto, Kazuaki, Kaji, Noritada, Tokeshi, Manabu, Kido, Jun-ichi, Shinohara, Yasuo, Baba, Yoshinobu
Electrophoresis 2007 v.28 no.16 pp. 2927-2933
blood, blood glucose, colorimetry, detection limit, electrophoresis, fluorescence, fluorescent labeling, glucokinase, glucose, glucose 6-phosphate, hexokinase, humans, linear models, monitoring, phosphorylation, regression analysis
A high-performance monitoring system for human blood glucose levels was developed using microchip electrophoresis with a plastic chip. The combination of reductive amination as glucose labeling with fluorescent 2-aminoacridone (AMAC) and glucose-borate complex formation realized the highly selective detection of glucose even in a complex matrix such as a blood sample. The migration time of a single peak, observed on an electropherogram of AMAC-labeled plasma, closely resembled that of glucose standard solution. The treatment of plasma with hexokinase or glucokinase for glucose phosphorylation resulted in a peak shift from approximately 145 to 70 s, corresponding to glucose and glucose-6-phosphate, respectively. A double-logarithm plot revealed a linear relationship between glucose concentration and fluorescence intensity in the range of 1-300 μM of glucose (r² = 0.9963; p <0.01), and the detection limit was 0.92 μM. Furthermore, blood glucose concentrations estimated from the standard curves of three subjects were compared with results obtained by conventional colorimetric analysis using glucose dehydrogenase. Good correlation was observed between methods according to simple linear regression analysis (p <0.05). The reproducibility of the assay was about 6.3-9.1% (RSD) and the within-days and between-days reproducibility were 1.6-8.4 and 5.2-7.2%, respectively. This system enables us to determine blood glucose with high sensitivity and accuracy, and will be applicable to clinical diagnosis.