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Plant and seed nutrient uptake in common bean in seven organic and conventional production systems

Author:
Westermann, Dale T., Terán, Henry, Muñoz-Perea, Carlos G., Singh, Shree P.
Source:
Canadian journal of plant science 2011 v.91 no.6 pp. 1089-1099
ISSN:
0008-4220
Subject:
beans, biomass, breeding, copper, cultivars, genotype, irrigation, manganese, nitrogen, nutrient uptake, nutrients, phosphorus, potassium, production technology, seed yield, water stress, zinc
Abstract:
Knowledge of plant and seed nutrient uptake by crop cultivars in organic and conventional production systems (PS) is essential for breeding the most appropriate genotypes for each PS. The objective was to determine the plant and seed uptake of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), and zinc (Zn) by 16 common bean genotypes. We also identified genotypes efficient in plant and seed nutrient uptake across seven organic and conventional PS. A randomized complete block design with four replicates (one plot per replicate) was used for evaluation in each of seven organic and conventional PS in 2003 and 2004. The effects of plant and seed uptake of nutrients, genotypes, PS, and the genotype × PS interaction were significant (P≤0.05). Plant and seed uptake of nutrients decreased in on-station continual dry bean and drought-stressed and on-farm organic low-input compared with on-station conventional irrigated and on-farm organic high-input PS. Common bean genotypes with higher biomass yield, in general, also had higher nutrient uptake, regardless of PS. In general, N and P uptakes were high and that for Mn was markedly low among common bean genotypes. Pinto CO46348, Bill Z, and Othello and Mexican red NW-63 and UI 239 were high-yielding and used nutrients more efficiently across seven organic and conventional PS and years. Other cultivars either had low biomass and seed yield (e.g., Common Pinto, Topaz, Common Red Mexican, UI 59) or were more efficient at whole-plant uptake or seed uptake of nutrients, but not both (e.g., Matterhorn, UI 465). Use of the above five genotypes should be maximized for production in both organic and conventional PS, and for breeding high-yielding broadly adapted cultivars efficient in plant and seed nutrient uptake in organic and conventional PS.
Agid:
305345