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Modelling of concentration fluctuations in canopy turbulence

Cassiani, M., Radicchi, A., Albertson, J. D.
Boundary-layer meteorology 2007 v.122 no.3 pp. 655-681
algorithms, canopy, chemical reactions, diffusivity, models, probability distribution, turbulent flow, wind
The knowledge of the concentration probability density function (pdf) is of importance in a number of practical applications, and a Lagrangian stochastic (LS) pdf model has been developed to predict statistics and concentration pdf generated by continuous releases of non-reactive and reactive substances in canopy generated turbulence. Turbulent dispersion is modelled using a LS model including the effects of wind shear and along-wind turbulence. The dissipation of concentration fluctuations associated with turbulence and molecular diffusivity is simulated by an Interaction by Exchange with the Conditional Mean (IECM) micromixing model. A general procedure to obtain the micromixing time scale needed in the IECM model useful in non-homogeneous conditions and for single and multiple scalar sources has been developed. An efficient algorithm based on a nested grid approach with particle splitting, merging techniques and time averaging has been used, thus allowing the calculation for cases of practical interest. The model has been tested against wind-tunnel experiments of single line and multiple line releases in a canopy layer. The approach accounted for chemical reactions in a straightforward manner with no closure assumptions, but here the validation is limited to non-reacting scalars.