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Antifungal activity of organic extracts from Juniperus virginiana heartwood against wood decay fungi

Mun, Sung Phil, Prewitt, Lynn
Forest products journal 2011 v.61 no.6 pp. 443-449
Coriolus versicolor, Gloeophyllum trabeum, Isoptera, Juniperus virginiana, antifungal properties, chloroform, decay fungi, decay resistance, decayed wood, ethyl acetate, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, heartwood, hexane, methanol, sesquiterpenoids, solvents
Easter red cedar (Juniperus virginiana) is a valuable source of heartwood extractives that provide decay resistance against termites and wood decay fungi. This study sought to determine the antifungal activity of heartwood extracts obtained using solvents with increasing polarity (hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol) against two wood decay fungi. The heartwood was extracted with methanol, and the methanol extract was sequentially extracted with hexane, chloroform, and ethyl acetate. The yield of the methanol extractives was 5.26 percent based on dry wood and the percentages of the hexane, chloroform, and ethyl acetate soluble fractions from the methanol extract were 46.4, 8.3, and 28.7 percent, respectively. Hexane and chloroform soluble fractions showed a high inhibitory effect on the growth of the wood decay fungi Trametes versicolor and Gloeophyllum trabeum. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis identified skeletons of sesquiterpenes and sesquiterpene alcohols in both extracts and the most abundant compounds identified, cedrol, cedrenes, and thujopsenes, were individually screened for antifungal activity. Among the three major sesquiterpenes, cedrol and thujopsene showed the highest inhibitory effects against G. trabeum and T. versicolor, respectively.