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Numerical simulation of groundwater flowing to horizontal seepage wells under a river

Wang, Wei, Zhang, Ge
Hydrogeology journal 2007 v.15 no.6 pp. 1211-1220
alluvium, groundwater, groundwater flow, hydraulic conductivity, mathematical models, permeability, rivers, seepage, semiarid zones, stream channels, wells, China
A horizontal seepage well, consisting of an interconnected vertical well, galleries, chambers and small-diameter radiating bores, is used to acquire relatively clean water that has been filtered through natural alluvial deposits in a riverbed. It has wide application, especially in arid and semi-arid areas. The lack of calculation formulae or models for horizontal seepage wells, up until now, has resulted in several false applications. Based on the analysis of groundwater flow characteristics, it has been concluded that several flow regimes coexist and hydraulic head loss exists in the horizontal seepage well. To avoid the difficulty of confirming the flux or head distribution in such a complex system, the model boundary of the whole horizontal seepage well has been moved to that of just the vertical well, and the well-aquifer system was treated as a heterogeneous medium, where the horizontal seepage well itself is a highly permeability medium. A mathematical model has been developed, based on the coupled seepage-pipe flow, by the introduction of equivalent hydraulic conductivity according to different flow regimes. Then a three-dimensional finite difference numerical model, based on the mathematical model, was developed and applied to a horizontal seepage well in China. The numerical model verified the groundwater flow characteristics of the horizontal seepage well.