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Binding site for C4b-binding protein in vitamin K-dependent protein S fully contained in carboxy-terminal laminin-G-type repeats. A study using recombinant factor IX-protein S chimeras and surface plasmon resonance

He, X., Shen, L., Malmborg, A.C., Smith, K.J., Dahlback, B., Linse, S.
Biochemistry 1997 v.36 no.12 pp. 3745-3754
binding sites, calcium, cattle, chimerism, coagulation, dissociation, genetic engineering, humans, hybrids, recombinant fusion proteins, sex hormone-binding globulin, surface plasmon resonance
The interaction between vitamin K-dependent protein S and the C4b-binding protein (C4BP) was studied using surface plasmon resonance and genetic engineering. The affinity, as well as association and dissociation rates of the complex, was measured for human and bovine protein S at five different calcium concentrations. The binding to C4BP of six protein hybrids containing different parts of coagulation factor IX and protein S was studied in the absence and presence of calcium. The results show that dissociation of the human protein S-C4BP complex is extremely slow in the presence of greater than or equal to 10 micromolar calcium (koff = 7 X 10(-6) s-1) and the association rate constant is kon = 7 X (4) M-1 s-1. Human and bovine protein S were found to bind to human C4BP with the same affinity, KD = 0.1 nM, but the rates of association and dissociation were higher for the bovine protein S (kon = 2 X (5) M-1 s-1, koff = 2 X 10(-5) s-1). In the absence of calcium, the affinity for C4BP was reduced by a factor of 65 for human protein S and by a factor of 40 for bovine protein S. The decreased affinity could be mainly attributed to an increased off-rate (12-17-fold), while the on-rate decreased 3-4-fold. The studies using chimeric proteins show that the portion of protein S that is responsible for binding to C4BP is fully contained in the two laminin-G-type repeats, which are homologous to the sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG). All hybrids that contain the laminin-G-type repeats bind to C4BP with the same affinity as recombinant protein S, whereas hybrids lacking these repeats show no detectable binding to C4BP. The present data also suggest that the effect of calcium on the C4BP-binding properties is mediated by calcium binding site(s) in the laminin-G-type repeats.