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Plasma response to a single dose of dietary β-cryptoxanthin esters from papaya (Carica papaya L.) or non-esterified β-cryptoxanthin in adult human subjects: a comparative study
- Breithaupt, Dietmar E., Weller, Philipp, Wolters, Maike, Hahn, Andreas
- British journal of nutrition 2003 v.90 no.4 pp. 795-801
- Carica papaya, adults, beta-cryptoxanthin, bioavailability, blood, breakfast, cholesterol, cross-over studies, diet, fasting, fatty acid metabolism, fruits, high performance liquid chromatography, intestinal absorption, triacylglycerols, yogurt
- Many orange-coloured fruits contain β-cryptoxanthin in its non-esterified as well as its esterified form. Information concerning the absorption of β-cryptoxanthin, especially with regard to the metabolism of its fatty acid esters, is rather scarce. The present study assessed the plasma concentration reached after consumption of a single dose of native β-cryptoxanthin esters from papaya (Carica papaya L.) or non-esterified β-cryptoxanthin in equal total amounts. In a randomized, single-blind crossover study, twelve subjects were served a portion of yoghurt containing esterified or non-esterified β-cryptoxanthin (1.3 mg absolute) together with a balanced breakfast. Between the two intervention days, there was a 2-week depletion period. After a fasting blood sample had been taken, futher samples were taken from the subjects at 3, 6, 9, 12 and 24 h. The concentration of non-esterified β-cryptoxanthin in the whole plasma was determined by HPLC; β-cryptoxanthin identification was confirmed by liquid chromatography–atmospheric pressure chemical ionization–MS analyses. Irrespective of the consumed diet, the plasma β-cryptoxanthin concentrations increased significantly (P=0·05) and peaked after 6–12 h. The concentration curves, as well as the areas under the curves, were not distinguishable according to two-sided F and t tests (P=0·05). Standardization of β-cryptoxanthin concentrations to plasma triacylglycerol and cholesterol had no impact on the results. Thus, the present study indicates comparable bioavailability of both non-esterified β-cryptoxanthin and mixtures of β-cryptoxanthin esters. The results support the existence of an effective enzymatic cleavage system accepting various β-cryptoxanthin esters.