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A Novel Green Chemistry Method for Nonaqueous Extraction and High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Detection of First-, Second-, and Third-Generation Tetracyclines, 4-Epitetracycline, and Tylosin in Animal Feeds

Granados-Chinchilla, Fabio, Sánchez, Jorge, García, Fernando, Rodríguez, César
Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 2012 v.60 no.29 pp. 7121-7128
animal nutrition, chlortetracycline, correlation, doxycycline, feeds, green chemistry, high performance liquid chromatography, minocycline, oxytetracycline, solid phase extraction, tetracycline, tylosin, Costa Rica
Although tetracyclines and macrolides are common additives for animal nutrition, methods for their simultaneous determination in animal feeds are nonexistent. By coupling an organic extraction and solid-phase extraction cleanup to a high-performance liquid chromatography separation and a nonaqueous postcolumn derivatization, we succeeded in detecting from 0.2 to 24.0 μg kg–¹ of tetracycline, oxytetracycline, chlortetracycline, doxycycline, tigecycline, and 4-epitetracycline in this complex and heterogeneous matrix. Minocycline and tylosin could also be detected with our procedure, but using UV spectrophotometry (1.5 ≤ LOD ≤ 1.9 mg kg–¹). Linear responses with correlation coefficients between 0.996 and 0.999 were obtained for all analytes in the 0.5–10 mg kg–¹ concentration range. Average recoveries between 59 and 97% and between 98 and 102% were obtained for the tetracyclines and tylosin, respectively. Replicate standard deviations were typically below 5%. When this method was applied to 20 feeds marketed in Costa Rica, we detected labeling inconsistencies, banned mixtures of tetracyclines, and tetracycline concentrations that contravene international regulation.